Periodontology History MDS AIPGDEE

AIPGDEE MDS Entrance preparation Notes – Periodontics

Periodontology History MDS AIPGDEE

The Historical Background of Periodontology

  • The modem dental treatment with illustrated texts and sophisticated instrumentation was developed in 18th century.
  • The importance of oral hygiene was recognized by Hebrews as described in Talmudic writings.
  • Oral hygiene was first practiced by the Sumerians of 3000 BC.
  • Sumerians used Gold toothpicks which were found in excavation sites of Mesopotamia
  • Periodontal disease was the most common of all diseases found in the embalmed bodies of the ancient
  • “Diseases of the soft investing tissues of the teeth” was mentioned in the ancient Chinese book written by Huang-Ti as Ya kon.Oral diseases were divided into three types:
    • Fong Ya or inflammatory conditions;
    • Ya Kon or diseases of the soft investing tissues of the teeth; and
    • Chong Ya or dental caries
  • Chewsticks were used by Chinese as toothpicks and toothbrush to clean the teeth and massage the gingival tissues.
    • Made of plant limbs or roots, with one end beaten into a soft fibrous condition to be used for scrubbing and brushing teeth.
    • Still used by Asiatic and African peoples in underdeveloped regions.
  • Phoenician civilization shows a specimen of periodontal wire
  • Hippocrates (460-377 B.C), the father of modern medicine, instituted the systematic examination of a patient, including pulse, temperature, respiration, excreta and sputum. He discussed the function and eruption of the teeth and etiology of periodontal disease.
  • “Canon”, a comprehensive treatise on medicine was written by He was an Arabic physician who used an extensive ‘materia medica’ for oral and periodontal disease and rarely resorted to surgery.
  • Albucasis first described the technique of scaling the teeth and developed a set of instruments for scaling.
  • The theory of ‘The Doctrine of Calculus’ was developed by Paracelsus.
    • He told that pathologic calcification occurred in a variety of organs and was a result of metabolic disturbances whereby the body takes nourishment from food and discards the refuse as “tartarus”, a material that cannot be broken down and is the ultimate matter or materia ultima.
    • Recognized the extensive formation of tartar on the teeth and related this to toothache. Toothache was thus comparable to the pain produced by calculus in other organs, such as the kidneys,
  • ‘Libellus de Dentibus’ (A Little Treatise on the Teeth) was written by Bartholomaeus Eustachius
    • Bartholomaeus Eustachius (1520-1574) of Rome was an outstanding anatomist and wrote a book on dentistry, ‘Libellus de Dentibus’ (‘A Little Treatise on the Teeth’), in 30 chapters.
    • First original book on the teeth and offered many new descriptions and concepts based on research and clinical studies, including a description of the dental pulp and the root canal, enamel, dentin, periodontal tissues, occlusion, diseases of the mouth, treatment modalities and rationale for treatment.
  • The concept that ‘the permanent teeth are developed from dental follicles, not from the roots of deciduous teeth’ was postulated by Bartholomaeus Eustachius.
  • Vesalius suggested that the development of permanent teeth was from the roots of deciduous teeth, which was discarded by Bartholomaeus Eustachius.
  • The Italian physician, mathematician, and philosopher Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576) was the first to differentiate types of periodontal diseases.
    • In a publication, dated 1562, he mentions;
      • one type of disease that occurs, with advancing age and leads to progressive loosening and loss of teeth, as, well as
      • a second, very aggressive type of disease that occurs in younger patients.
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1623-1723) of Delft Holland, was the first to develop microscope to discover microorganisms, cellular structure, blood cells, sperm, and various other microscopic structures, including the tubular structure of dentin.
    • Pierre Fauchard, born in Brittany in 1678, is regarded as “Father of the Dental Profession”.
      • The book written by him is called ‘ The Surgeon Dentist’.
      • Published in 1728, it covered all aspects of dental practice, including restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, oral surgery, periodontics and orthodontics.
    • ‘The Natural History of the Human Teeth’ was written by John Hunter.
      • He offered remarkably clear illustrations of the anatomy of the teeth and their supporting structures.
      • Also described the features of periodontal diseases and gave the concept of active and passive eruption of teeth.
    • Thomas Berdmore (1740-1785), was known as “Dentist to His Majesty” (i.e., King George El).
      • He published the ‘Treatise in the Disorders and Deformities of the Teeth and Gums’ in 1770.
    • ‘Odontogenic focal infection’ theory was advocated by Leonard Koecker.
      • Theory stated that “foci” of sepsis were responsible for the initiation and progression of a variety of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, peptic ulcers, and appendicitis
      • He recommended the extraction of all severely involved teeth and roots, including all unopposed molars, to prevent systemic infections.
    • ‘Father of Oral Hygiene’ and the inventor of dental floss is Levi Spear Parmly (1790-1859)
    • Anesthesia was discovered by Horace Wells (1813-1848) in 1845.
      • He discovered general anesthetic effects of nitrous oxide
    • William Morton (1819-1868) in 1846, discovered the general anesthetic effects of ether.
    • Local anesthesia was developed by the Vienna ophthalmologist Carl Roller (1857-1944), who produced anesthesia of the eye with drops of cocaine-Procaine.
    • John W Riggs (1811-1885) is regarded as the first specialist in the field of Periodontics.
      • He was the leading authority in periodontal disease and its treatment in the United States, to the point that periodontitis was known as “Riggs’ disease”.
    • The ‘Germ Theory of Disease’ was established by Louis Pasteur. It states that spontaneous generation of organisms does not exist and showed that one organism can cause disease in another.
    • Adolph Witzel (1847-1906) identified bacteria as the cause of periodontal disease.
    • Willoughby D Miller (1853-1907), introduced modern bacteriology principles to dentistry.
    • Bacterial plaque was described by Leon Williams (1852-1932), an American dentist who practiced in London and in 1897 described a gelatinous accumulation of bacteria adherent to the enamel surface in relation to caries.
    • In 1899, G V Black (1836-1915) coined the term ‘gelatinous microbial plaque’.
    • Hyacinthe Jean Vincent (1862-1950), a French physician working at the Pasteur institute in Paris, and Hugo Carl Plaut (1858-1928) in Germany, described the spirillum and fusiform bacilli associated with what later became known as Vincent’s angina
      • In 1904 Vincent described these organisms in ulceronecrotic gingivitis.
    • Bernhard Gottlieb described the attachment of gingival epithelium to the tooth structure.
      • Also described the histopathology of inflammatory and degenerative periodontal disease, the biology of the cementum, active and passive tooth eruption, and traumatic occlusion
    • OskarWeski gave the concept of periodontium and its component.
      • He told that periodontium is formed by cementum, gingiva, periodontal ligament, and bone and gave it the name paradentium, which was later changed to parodontium, a term still used in Europe.
    • In 1923, A W Ward introduced the surgical pack under the trade name Wonder pack.
      • Its made of Zinc-oxide eugenol mixed with alcohol, pine oil and asbestos filters.
    • Periodontics was recognized as a specialty of dentistry by the American Dental Association in
      • In 1995 the AAP mandated that all postgraduate periodontal programs increase to a 3-year curriculum which included dental implants and administration of conscious sedation.
    • German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen (1845-1923) discovered radiographs in 1895.
    • WD Miller is regarded as the first ‘Oral Microbiologist’.
    • Possible role of trauma from occlusion in periodontal disease was attributed by Austrian dentist Moritz Karolyi (1865-1945).
      • Also recommended its correction by grinding occlusal surfaces and preparation of bite plates.

 

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